La Societe Anonyme Edmond Etling was founded after the First World War in Paris. Etling was a retailer who commissioned art works in bronze, ceramics, and glass (mostly from French artists). Amongst the most famous designers of glass for Etling were Lucille Sevin and Genevieve Granger. The glass pieces were usually made for Etling at the Choisy-le-Roi glassworks close to Paris. M. Etling commissioned cameo glass and sold it as ‘Richard’ cameo glass in Paris in the 1920’s. It was produced in mainly floral and landscape designs for bowls and vases. Etling supported, ETALEUNE, an “atelier” that recruited promising artists to design art glass which it then produced and marketed. Their entire ouput was produced during the Art Deco period as the company did not survive the second world war.
Most Loetz glass was commissioned by outside designers, and the best pieces were produced by the union of Loetz and Austrian designers. Many of these designers were aligned with the Vienna Secession Art movement which included Koloman Moser and Josef Hoffman. Loetz combines subtle but innovative forms with very advanced techniques in the use of color and artistic methods such as feathering.
The principal staff designer for Loetz between 1903 and 1914 was Maria Kirschner, who was born in Prague but studied and practiced in Paris and Berlin. Kirschner favored subtle forms of elegant simplicity with little decoration beyond applied handles. Kirschner’s work contrasted with the French Art Nouveau forms, including gooseneck vases and pinched, organic shapes, sometimes applied with tendrils of iridescent glass produced from the late 1890s. Kirschner designed more than 200 works for Loetz, some of which are signed with her monogram–not to be confused with Moser’s mark of capital letters MK engraved. Her forms and scale are similar to the work of Louis Comfort Tiffany, whose career in glass making parallels that of Loetz and whose style shows a clear Austrian influence, perhaps learned as early as 1889 when Tiffany admired Loetz’s display at the Paris Exposition. It is widely believed that glass workers from Loetz and other Bohemian factories defected to Tiffany’s works in New York City, which would have been a welcome haven for emigrant artisans in the early years of the early twentieth century. In contrast to the fully evolved Art Nouveau spirit of Kirschner’s Loetz, the designs by Josef Hoffman and his followers tend to be of controlled, almost architectural proportion. The combination of bold simplicity of form with vibrant, lustrous color and organic, pitted surface treatment created art glass of the highest quality. Loetz is fine art glass expressing the vitality and creativity of a most exciting time in the decorative arts.
Bitche 1864 – Nancy 1930 Bitche 1853 – Nancy 1909
Industrialists et master glass blowers
In 1878, Jean Daum (1825-1885) bought the Sainte-Catherine glassworks in Nancy. He made both of his sons partners in the business – Auguste in 1879 and Antonin in 1887. Upon finishing his classical education in Bitche, Metz, and Nancy, Auguste Daum received a law degree from the university in Paris. He abandoned his law career in order to manage his father’s factory and, in 1904, he became the president of the Nancy Commercial Court. Upon his death in 1909, his brother Antonin took over the family business. Antonin was a student in Lunéville and then attended a secondary school in Nancy. In 1887, he graduated from the Ecole Centrale de Paris and joined the glass factory to attend to the renovation of forms and decorations.
Auguste’s management and Antonin’s creative talent gave the business a new economic and artistic dimension, most notably with the creation of an artistic glassmaking section in Nancy in 1891. The business developed several new techniques, the vitrification des poudres amongst others. In 1899, they patented their décor intercalaire.
Over the years, numerous talented artists were in charge of Daum’s decoration workshop. Jacques Gruber, decorator and glassblower, was responsible from 1893 onwards and Henri Bergé from 1895 onwards. Amalric Walter’s arrivel in 1904, after an apprenticeship at the Sèvres factory, extended the pâte de verre technique within the Daum glassworks.
The Nancy Museum of Fine Arts has housed since the mid 80’s almost 600 examples of Daum glass, crystal, light fixtures and pâtes de verre, all of which illustrate a century of Nancy glass production.
Antonin Daum was vice president and treasurer of the Ecole de Nancy from its creation in 1901.
Sensuous poses of young women in the Art Nouveau style were disguised by a covering that revealed all when a button was pushed or a lever moved. Often carefully sculpted animals, such as bears, could be opened to reveal an erotic figure inside.
‘Cold painted bronze’ refers to pieces cast in Vienna and then decorated with oil paint. The colour was not fired hence “cold painted”
Born in Naples in 1891. He did not go to an Art School but studied under Francesco Lerace in Naples. He moved to France and made his debut with his first exhibition in the Salon des Beaux Arts in Paris in 1913.
He produced many bronzes and terracotta’s some of which were retailed through Alfred Dunhill 15 Rue de la Paix Paris. Dunhill also had branches in London and New York. Many of Genneralli’s terracotta’s were made using the lost wax method and limited to only 10 copies of each. He generated a large volume of outdoor statuary in Marble – including funerary monuments- as well as figures and groups in bronze and bronze and ivory all executed in his vibrant Art Deco style. Variation to his works was provided by a range of patinated finishes he applied to his works including verdigris, silver and gold
His work is highly collectible today and admired for the quality of workmanship.
Born Paris November 16 1877
Died March 9 1967
Lucien Alliot was a pupil of Barrias and Coutan who was born in Paris in 1877. He was the son of Napoleon Alliot, who was also a sculptor. Lucien Alliot regularly exhibited at the Salon de la Société des Artistes Français during the period from 1905-39, became its president in 1934 until 1939.
His work is featured in many collections and museums around the world.
Born in Pontoise, France, he was self-taught and was taken prisoner by the Germans during the 1914-1918 war and was interned in Switzerland where he produced several monuments. He also exhibited at all the main Paris salons. After the war he worked until 1935. Bouraine also produced designs for glass statues which were produced by Argy-Rousseau during the 1930s. Best known for his chryselephantine figures he also made full bronzes and figural groups, many with a classical theme – like Diana the Huntress or his famous Amazonian Diana with shield and spear.
Bouraine used a pseudonym which was Derenne, he may also have used Briand (Brian), as there is a definite connection between the two as can be seen in the hoop dancer by both artists, which appears to be identical.
Marcel Bouraine was a life long friend of Max Le Verrier and Pierre Le Faguays who all studied together at the Beaux Arts in Geneva. Later the Le Verrier foundry was to produce many of the Bouraine statues for him. Bouraine used two pseudonyms which were Derenne and Briand.
Belgian. Active 1918 – 1938
Best known for futuristic pieces and worked like Alexander Kelety in the ‘Moderne’ style. Listed in Bermans bronzes and was significant in the development of modern Art. His most famous works include animals in particular Panthers and Athletes.
One of his most famous works include a bust of an allegorical male aviator believed to be Lindbergh. Other works listed in Berman are:
Bust of a Long Neck Lady
Man of the Land
His first works as a glass artist were displayed at the Salon de Artists Français in 1914. In 1921 he started his own glassworks in Paris, Les Pâtes de Verres d’ARGY-ROUSSEAU, together with Moser-Millot, financer and chairman of the company. The glassworks used semi-automated techniques to produce some of ARGY-ROUSSEAU’s designs in series. These designs mainly consisted of vases in art deco style, but also boxes, sculptures, ashtrays and pendants were made.
By the mid-1920s ARGY-ROUSSEAU was at the top of his fame and he was invited to be one of the judges at the Paris exhibition in 1925. Due to the economic crisis in the 1930s the factory had to close in 1931 and ARGY-ROUSSEAU was forced to continue as an independent artist, making individual pieces. He kept on making glass items almost until his death in 1953.
(1865 – 1922)
Carl Kauba was born August 13, 1865 in Vienna, Austria, the son of a shoemaker. Kauba studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna under Professor Laufenberg. Later he would study at the academies under Carl Waschmann and Stefan Schwartz and he travelled to Paris in 1886 to further study.
His subjects were typically American Indians, calvarymen, cowboys, and roughriders. In addition to his American bronzes, Kauba produced a lifetime’s worth of Austrian statuary. Kauba’s fascination with the West was fed by the stories of the German writer, Carl May, whose tales of Western adventures were known throughout Europe. It has been suggested that Kauba traveled to the American West when he was about twenty-five years old, possibly returning to Austria with voluminous notes, sketches, and several models of Western sculpture. However the majority of scholars feel that the artist never travelled to the United States at all, but instead relied upon the accounts of others and first hand artifacts to execute his bronzes.
Carl Kauba is also noted for his “Naughties”- a collection of mechanical or metamorphic sculptures. Kauba also worked under the name of T.Curts, and Karl Thenn and many of his works were unsigned. Thus it is quite normal to find identical sculptures with any of these signatures or without any signature.
The intricate detail, and the realistic forms make Kauba’s sculptures excellent examples of Viennese bronzes at the turn of the century.
Industrialist, master glassblower, cabinet-maker, ceramist
After several apprenticeships in various European cities, Weimar and Meisenthal amongst others, Emile Gallé became a partner at his father’s glass and faience decoration business in 1867. Ten years later, he took over the family business and extended its activities to cabinet making in 1885. Previously acknowledged at the Clay and Glass Exposition in 1884, Emile Gallé was honored at the 1889 Paris World Fair with three rewards for his ceramics, glasswork, and furniture. Unfortunately, and to the great regret of Emile Gallé, ceramic work was no longer popular amongst the public, thus he oriented his focus to glasswork, a domain in which he developed and created new fabrication procedures. His research lead to the registration of two patents in 1898, one of which concerned the glass marquetry and the other on glass finish.
His work expresses throughout multiple references his diverse interests, in which nature plays a dominant, but not exlusive, role. His patriotic and political commitments were best expressed at the Paris World Fairs of 1889 and 1900 in such pieces as The Rhine Table (which calls for the return of Alsace-Lorraine to France) and the spectacular installation of The seven pitchers Marjolaine (for the rehabilitation of Dreyfus). Involved early on in the renewal of decorative arts, Emile Gallé distributed in his French, German and English warehouses quality work throughout Europe.
In 1901, he was the founder and the first president of the Ecole de Nancy, the Alliance Provinciale des Industries d’Art.
Rene Lalique was born a rural 19th century man in a pre-industrialized Europe. It was a time before light bulbs, and telephones, before automobiles and washing machines and electricity. But by the time of his death in 1945 at the dawn of the atomic age, he would have completed two careers spanning two different centuries. In 1900 at the age of 40, he was the most celebrated jeweler in the world and an art nouveau artist and designer of magnificent proportions. But by 1925 at the height of the art deco era he was the most celebrated glassmaker in the world. In between Lalique would leave his contemporaries behind as he turned from creating unique jewelry and objects d’art, to the mass production of innovative and usable art glass. He brought glass into the home of everyday people where it had never been before, and he worked out the industrial techniques to mass produce his useful art glass objects on a scale and cost to complement the spreading industrial revolution and resulting worldwide appetite for his products.
Lalique is remembered for his jewelry and his glass. But his greatest accomplishments were born in his recognition of the changing world in which he lived. His life spanned the entire period from the Civil War to World War II and as his world changed, so did Lalique. His amazing turn of careers and fields put him in the forefront of the new mass production. He was a jeweler, he was a glassmaker, he was an artist. But his great accomplishment was to combine those talents with foresight and innovation to not just serve markets, but to create them. In the process, Lalique would become a world class industrialist with an industrial ability on par with any other of his rich talents and achievements.